Stem cell research and therapy college papers
Select network Stem cell research is one of reseqrch important scientific and political issues of these modern times. The purpose of this sample essay, one of the many writing services offered by Ultiusis to develop a historical and scientific overview of this selected issue. The essay will begin with a general introduction to stem cell research. Then, it will discuss the scientific history of stem cell research as it has unfolded over the past several years; and after this, it will turn to a consideration of the political history of stem cell research.
Adult stem cells can actually be found in both adults and children.
Their name comes from the fact that they can be harvested from stem cell research and therapy college papers tissue without causing harm to the person from whom they are harvested. Embryonic stem cells, on the other hand, can only be derived from embryos, and the harvesting process destroys the embryos. From this basic introduction, it is already clear that embryonic stem cell research has far greater potential to be ethically problematic than adult stem cell research.
However, embryonic stem cell research is also reserch considered to have click greatest potential for delivering medical and scientific breakthroughs, due to the fact that they are even more flexible so to speak and undifferentiated than adult stem cells see Bongo and Richards.
- Retinal diseases Age-related macular degeneration AMD , glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy are the three most common causes of visual impairment and legal blindness in developed countries [ 8 — 10 ].
- Mesenchymal stem cells MSCs are progenitors of all connective tissue cells.
- We hope that it will become a valuable medium through which information on the Telecommunications, Electricity, Broadcasting and Postal sectors in Samoa can be shared.
Benefits of stem cell research From the medical perspective, stem cell research is viewed as very promising due to the fact that if stem cells can be introduced into patients with a range of illnesses, they could possible help regenerate the tissues and organs of the patients and thereby help heal illnesses and especially degenerative illnesses that are currently incurable.
For example, Lovell-Badge has indicated that diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and Reseach disease are among the illnesses that could potentially be responsive to stem cell research Again, given that the potential of stem cell research is directly correlated with the plasticity of the stem cells in question, it logically follows that there will be an increasing push by scientists to focus research on embryonic stem cells if at all possible, due to the fact that they have greater plasticity than adult stem cells and thus greater potential to contribute to medical breakthroughs.
The moral dimension of the issue, however, has generally led to limitations being imposed on the cdll of scientists to pursue embryonic stem cell research. Scientific history ppapers stem cell research The organization Science Progress has provided a good summary of some of the main events that have marked the scientific history of stem cell research. The first isolation of stem cells from mice in the year The first isolation in primates in the year The first isolation in humans in the year These events were important due to the fact that scientifically speaking, the isolation of stem cells from other elements within the body would be a prerequisite for conducting rigorous research on stem cells themselves.
Stem cell transplants for patients with illnesses such as leukemia Trials with human beings with degeneration of the eyes Experiments with mice regarding the regeneration of heart tissue The cloning of embryonic stem cells which would avert the need to harvest new stem cells from new embryos Clearly, the scientific progress over the past several years gives great cause for hope. Continue reading has been a steady trend of scientists increasingly learning the secrets of stem cells and being able to apply their new knowledge to either research potential treatments or actually deliver effective treatments to human beings.
Therefore, it could be suggested that anyone who has a real interest in seeing major medical breakthroughs happen which, presumably, would be almost everyone cannot afford to oppose the ongoing development of stem cell research per se. What there clearly can be controversy over, stem cell research and therapy college papers, is how exactly the research agenda ought to proceed. In order to more effectively address this dimension of the issue presently under consideration, it may be a good idea to turn now to the political history of stem cell research, or legislation that has surrounding the issue as it has developed over time.
Political history of stem cell research One of the clearest points that emerges regarding the political history of stem cell research and bioengineering in generalis that there has been ongoing controversy over the extent to which the federal government should fund research. This has proved to be a quite partisan issue.
For example, inBush issued an executive order that placed significant restrictions on federal funding for colleg cell research; and inObama countermanded this order with an order of his own called "Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research involving Human Stem Cells" see Research America. Stem cell research and therapy college papers, of course, is tied to broader political conflicts regarding issues such as religion and abortion.
If the federal stem cell research and therapy college papers is to spend tax money on stem cell research, then this would likely contradict the values of many Americans, and especially conservative Americans, regarding the origins of human life. This is likely why the main legislative barriers against stem cell research have always focused on embryonic stem cell research.
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Again, as has been noted above, significantly greater ethical dilemmas inhere to research with embryonic stem cells than to research with adult stem cells. Restrictions on stem cell harvesting A good example of such restrictions can be seen in the guidelines for stem cell research released by the National Institute of Health inwhich stipulated that: Several important ethical points are exemplified by this statement, including that embryonic stem cells must be derived using private and not public article source and that it still is not acceptable see more create embryos simply for the sake of harvesting stem cells from them and destroying them in the process.
Over the course of the last several years, though, such regulations would stem cell research and therapy college papers to have become someone less salient both due to their relaxation under the Obama administration and to scientific innovations regarding adult stem cells, which have enabled scientists to somewhat circumvent the legislative debate surrounding embryonic stem cells.
Summary of current situation As Wertz has succinctly put it: This is because controversy over stem cell research generally tends to focus on the use of embryonic stem cells; but then, this leads to the more fundamental question of the legal, ethical, and metaphysical status of the embryo. In principle, if one grants that abortions collegr acceptable, then one hherapy also grant that it is acceptable to create embryos specifically for the purpose of harvesting stem cells from them.
When does life begin? Of course, there is a significant number of Americans who believe that life begins at conception, and that the embryo is thus in fact metaphysically a living human being. If this were the case, tehrapy the manufacture of embryos simply for the purpose of destroying them would be horrific, insofar the destruction of each embryo would then be morally and conceptually equivalent to murder.
If this paradigm is accepted, then whatever benefits could be produced by embryonic stem cell research would clearly be outweighed by unacceptability of the atrocities that would need to be committed in order to achieve those benefits.
Clearly, this conflict ultimately surpasses the bounds of learn more here itself and is grounded in the differing religions and broader worldviews of different groups of people within the nation. As Robertson has written: Stem cell science is thus drawn into the ongoing, highly divisive wars over abortion and the culture of life that have occupied a central stage in American law and politics over the last 30 years" Stem cell research is thus a highly partisan issue, and it is likely to remain that way over the foreseeable future.
Again, this is because the real points of contention that surround the issue surpass the scope of science or even reason more generally; they touch on people's fundamental beliefs about what it means to be human. One side may argue that embryos are not humans and that it is thus acceptable to destroy them in order to relieve the suffering of actual humans The other side may argue that embryos are in fact humans and that under no circumstances can their destruction be acceptable Both positions would be cogent within the context of their own assumptions; and it would be difficult if not impossible to rationally discredit either set of assumptions.
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In addition, it is worth pointing out that even adult stem cell research is controversial, insofar as stem cell research in general has the potential to lead to human cloning. The basic point here would be that human beings are engaging with a dangerous power that may be intimately connected with the very origins of life itself. If there were no God, then there would naturally be no problem with human beings pushing their knowledge to the limits. On the other hand, if one did believe in God, then it would be possible to argue that stem cell research is an attempt stem cell research and therapy college papers humans to usurp His role.
As with the morality of the destruction of embryos, this question can be expected to remain open for a quite long time. Conclusion In summary, this essay has provided a historical and scientific overview of the issue of stem cell research. It began with an introduction to the issue, proceeded to discuss the scientific and political history of the issue, and finally reflected on the current situation regarding the issue.
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One of the main points that has emerged here is that although stem cell research clearly has a great deal of potential for stem cell research and therapy college papers medical breakthroughs, the research agenda has been limited to at least some extent by legislative barriers based on moral concerns. Given the nature of the issue at hand, these latter concerns clearly are not irrelevant.
Moreover, it could even be suggested that without the barriers, certain recent scientific innovations such as those pertaining to adult stem cells may not have come about. In general, then, it is perhaps a good idea for stem cell research to proceed in the cautious and pragmatic way that it has thus far.
Works Cited American Medical Association. Bongso, Ariff, and Mark Richards.
RSCs have been isolated from the edge of the peripheral region of the neurosensory mammalian retina, although questions regarding the true origin of these cells and the ability to self-renew have been raised [ 7475 ]. This is likely why the main legislative barriers against stem cell research have always focused on embryonic stem cell research. One side may argue that embryos are not humans and that it is thus acceptable to destroy them in order to relieve the suffering of actual humans The other side may argue that embryos are in fact humans and that under no circumstances can their destruction be acceptable Both positions would be cogent within the context of their own assumptions; and it would be difficult if not impossible to rationally discredit either set of assumptions. All stem cells are undifferentiated cells that exhibit unlimited self-renewal and can generate multiple cell lineages or more restricted progenitor populations that can contribute to tissue homeostasis by replenishing the cells or to tissue regeneration after injury. Interestingly, it has been suggested that rat MSCs can be made to express photopigment rhodopsin in vitro simply by adding epidermal growth factor to the culture media [ 39 ]. Intravenous injection of mouse BM-derived MSCs genetically engineered to secrete pigment epithelium-derived factor resulted in smaller neovascular complexes [ 49 ]. In an in vitro rat retina-explant model, untreated MSCs seemed to transdifferentiate into microglia in a way reminiscent of earlier work on MSC transplants in other neurological tissue [ 43 ]. Recent years have seen enormous progress in the treatment options that stop the progression of AMD from a neovascular state to fibrosis, that slow down the here of glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure, and that prevent progression of diabetic retinopathy by optimizing glycemic control and treat retinal neovascularization early [ 11 — 14 ].
The Future for Stem Cell Research. Ten Years of Controversy.