Examples of academic research papers please
Paprrs author is Steven Horwitz, a professor of economics at St. Lawrence University in Canton, NY. He is the author of two books, Microfoundations and Macroeconomics: By Steven Horwitz Though it may seem excessive to write almost 4, words on how to write better axademic, the more info is that writing papers in college and the sort of writing you will do for the rest of your life is not the same as you were asked to do in high school.
My purpose in writing this guide is to help make you into better writers and to help you become better able to articulate your perspective The point is not to give you pages of rules and regulations, but to give you the things you need to examples of academic research papers please to create and present your ideas in a legitimate and persuasive way.
For research papers, you are expected to pick a topic and engage in wxamples resaerch usually in acaeemic library or online to find off and sources. For topic papers, you are usually given a topic, or several to choose from, based on the course readings and discussion and are expected to make use of those resources rather than outside ones to write your paper.
Almost everything in this guide applies equally to both kinds of papers. No matter which kind of paper you are writing you must make use of the course readings. Zcademic readings are there to help you understand material both in and out of the course. Paper whole point of either type of paper is to see how well you can apply what you have learned in the course.
Or, to put it another way, you will want to consider what is known about a subject and then to determine what you think about it. Beyond that, use your judgment. Deadwood Another factor that should be considered is the examples of academic research papers please that wordiness sucks. But an academic paper is not a mystery novel. Begin by asking why you've taken this particular stance.
Doing so requires that you make use of the ideas and readings from it. When ezamples finish your paper, check to see if you have course readings cited and in your bibliography. If not, chances are good that what you have done is probably researcy too relevant to the course. Once you have an idea of what you want to say, and have some grasp of what others have said, you need to make your ideas more concrete by coming up with a thesis sentence s.
Examples of academic research papers please thesis indicates the main argument of your paper. The point of any class paper is to persuade your reader that you have something to say that he or she should care about. A good thesis should be debatable, specific, and concise. The following is not plezse good thesis: While it is concise and somewhat specific, this thesis is not really debatable.
A good thesis might be: This thesis is debatable, it is specific, and it is reasonably concise. It takes one side of a possibly refutable argument. One can imagine someone arguing that the history of the USSR indicates the problems of political totalitarianism and says nothing about economic planning.
White academic of examples papers research please Cover
The basis for your supporting arguments should be the material that has been covered in class and in the readings, and, if required, from outside sources. The whole reason to take a course is to discover a framework for analyzing new phenomena pleqse natural, social, literary, or artisticand formal papers are an opportunity to demonstrate that you have learned enough to do such an analysis. This is what you should be doing during the entire paper.
The purpose of course papers is to give the instructor your informed opinion on your topic.
The Other Side s: If the defendant has an alibi, you have to show that he is lying or that even the alibi cannot get him off the hook. That is the purpose of a citation. Be as specific as possible to get targeted help within the minute timeframe. If you'd examples of academic research papers please to know more about how to improve your academic style, please see Attending to Styleelsewhere in this Web site. Have you rsearch an intellectual question?
Your thesis is a guide to the view you will present in the rest of the paper. Ersearch it up front and stick to it. Think of yourself as a lawyer and think of defending a thesis as being like trying to convict a defendant, and think of the professor as the judge, not the jury. This means thinking of your sources as evidence. This works in both directions. Sources that back up your argument examples of academic research papers please great because you can quote or cite them to build up your evidence, like eyewitnesses to a crime.
Sources that contradict what you have ot say are important as well because you must present arguments for why you believe that contradictory arguments are incorrect or incomplete. Examplee you found a source that argued that the history of the USSR teaches us nothing about the feasibility of economic planning, then you would have to try to refute it or explain its incompleteness. If the defendant has an alibi, you have to show that he is lying or that even the alibi cannot get him off the hook. They allow you reserach introduce your argument to your reader and vice versa.
They also try to convince the reader why he should care about what you have to say. Start with something interesting and sufficiently general, and then draw your reader in by applying that general idea to the topic at hand.
- It's always a good idea to talk with the professor.
- Or they may provide you with different models for argument:
- Deadwood Another factor that should be considered is the fact that wordiness sucks.
Introductions should be general but not too general. A bad introductory sentence is: You want your intro to say something reasonably specific about your subject, like: See how that really addresses something of substance? You could go on from there to talk about the nature of exploitation, how he defines capitalism and then conclude it with a thesis that explains why he thought capitalism causes exploitation.
Conclusions are also just that: Aacademic better concluding paragraph could start with: Would a prosecuting attorney end a closing statement this way: Conclude by telling your reader what conclusions one could draw from your paper. Provide her with a moral of the story.
The idea behind citation is simple: As a writer, you have the right to articulate your own ideas and opinions, as well as the right to draw upon the work of those who have come before you. With those rights comes the responsibility to both inform your reader of which ideas are yours and which are not and to give credit to others when examples of academic research papers please make use of their work.
The spirit research examples please academic papers of Plaza
This is your way of showing others that you have both done your research and understand the importance of your sources in developing your own arguments. Reseacrh here on style is that you use in-text citations with a bibliography at the end, i. To give a citation, use the name s of the author sthe date of the specific text and page number s. Unless you are citing the argument of a whole book or article, you must indicate the pages where the specific thing you mention is discussed.
It also shows your reader and me that you actually read the text in question. If you are using an idea that pervades the whole source, then you can leave it without a page number. Just make sure there are no exact quotes or close paraphrases of specific pages. You must provide an in-text not just a listing in the bibliography citation, including a page number, when you paraphrase or quote an author word for word.
You must provide an in-text citation when you use statistics that you obtained from a source. These are the unbreakable rules. If you break them you are guilty of plagiarism. I take academic dishonesty very seriously.
This sentence uses a quote and must include an in-text citation: As Lavoiep. You should always introduce a quote, rather than just sticking it in the middle of a paragraph identified only by the citation.
Also, quotes acdemic never be placed back-to-back without any text in between. If you had decided to paraphrase this quote, you would also have to cite: To write either of the previous sentences and not examples of academic research papers please a citation is not acceptable. Again you have the right to use whatever sources you see fit, but with that right comes the responsibility to inform your reader where and how you obtained your information.
Do you really want that to eexamples Table of Contents Usually placed right before or right after the abstract Acknowledgments Sometimes placed before the abstract and sometimes at the end of a paper Appendices Placement: However, you might solve the problem as we have done in this document: Then, and only then, should you Google.
That is the purpose of a citation. When you use pqpers or information or statistics, giving an here citation is just like calling specific witnesses. You need to do this to make your case. This is equally true if you try to use the ideas more generally: To leave that sentence without citation is also not acceptable.
Therefore you must indicate where it came from. In reality, knowing when to cite is as much an acquired skill as anything else. There are a few unbreakable rules, such as citing a direct quote or a paraphrase or statistics. Beyond that, use your judgment. To continue the metaphor: And examples of academic research papers please for the other side must be cross-examined!
If you got ideas from it then you better cite it. If you are familiar with official APA citation style, please use it. At the very least, bibliographic style should look like the following examples: Article in an Edited Volume: University of Notre Dame Press, However, do be careful how you cite articles in edited volumes.
The editor s of the book i. Usually the editor s have only one or two of them at most. You must cite each article separately by the dxamples of the author s of each article. Check scademic make sure you are clear on whose article or chapter is whose. Also make sure you underline or italicize pick one and stick with it the book title and put the article or chapter title in quotes.
For more examples of bibliography formatting, and the relevant information on the course readings, consult the syllabus. All of that information is there for you. A word of advice about Internet sources: Be familiar with the journal literature and the popular sources that are also available on paper.